Development of Magnetic Nano biocatalyst for Economic Biorefinery of Soybean Products
(none assigned)
Parent Project:
This is the first year of this project.
Lead Principal Investigator:
Ademola Hammed, North Dakota State University
Co-Principal Investigators:
Project Code:
Contributing Organization (Checkoff):
Institution Funded:
Brief Project Summary:
Soybeans contain biomolecules that could be used for food, health, and chemical synthesis applications. But some alternative applications are not possible because of high soybean processing temperatures. Enzyme-based processing is an alternative to conventional processing because of the low temperature; however, the high cost of enzymes makes this process prohibitive. An enzyme-based process could become economical if enzymes are recycled. Researchers have developed attached enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis, which could be used to reduce costs. The project aims to attach different enzyme types on magnetic nanoparticles to catalyze soybean bioprocessing.
Key Beneficiaries:
#engineers, #farmers, #scientists
Unique Keywords:
#enzymes, #new uses, #soybean oil
Information And Results
Project Summary

Soybeans contain an array of biomolecules that potentially could be used for food, feed, health, and chemical synthesis applications. Tapping into alternative uses of soybeans could ameliorate the rising tensions and new export barriers that have disrupted US soybean exports and have affected soybean growers economically. However, some alternative applications are not yet possible because of the high processing temperature used in conventional soybean processing. Conventional soybean processing denature soybean biomolecules thereby becoming less fit as precursors for above mentioned applications. Enzyme-based processing has been identified as an alternative to conventional processing because of the low operating temperature. Enzymes are also more easily controlled thereby preventing side reactions and allowing the use of water or reducing solvent requirement. However, the high cost of enzymes makes this prohibitive to industrial processes. An enzyme-based process could become economical if enzymes are recycled. Enzyme recycling is possible if they are attached to magnetic supports that ease recovery and reuse. We have successfully developed attached enzymes on magnetic nanoparticle for biomass hydrolysis. Our technology could be used for to reduce process cost in enzymebased processing of soybeans. We aim to attach different enzyme types on magnetic nanoparticles to catalyze soybean bioprocessing. Funding for this research will be leveraged with recently obtained EPSCoR grant. Our results would expedite adoption of enzyme-based processing in soybean industries and make alternative soybean use possible.

Project Objectives

i. To develop attached enzyme constructs that is suitable for soybean bioprocessing into phytochemicals and monomeric units.
ii. To produce amino acids, sugars, oil, peptides, and protein using immobilized enzyme for soybean bioprocessing.

Project Deliverables

Information on enzyme recoverability during soybeans bioprocessing.
Knowledge of enzyme consortiums required to improve soybean bioprocessing.
Information of functional properties of soybean phytochemicals extracted using attached enzyme.
Information about potential new use of soybean products.

Progress Of Work

See upload below for progress report.

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Final Project Results


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Why the research is important to ND soybean farmers
Soybean is high in protein and starch that are; respectively, consist of peptide and glucose as their building block. Although, smaller units like glucose and peptides are fermentable to value added biochemicals like ethanol, ammonia, and lactic acid, the protein and starch need to be broken down first. One of the most viable way to breakdown protein and starch is using enzyme. However, the high cost of enzyme is an economic challenge for the industries. Enzymatic processing can be economical if enzymes are recovered and reused. The development of economic technology to convert soybean to fermentable units will open up new uses and demand for soybeans which will in turn increase farmer income.

Research conducted
The major aim of this research is to produce attached enzymes on magnetic nanoparticles and/or polymer support for processing soybean products including dehulled, fat flake, defatted flake, and soy meal. Similar to what happens in our body during food digestion, soybean starch was broken down into simple glucose by two enzymes including amylase (AMY) and amyloglucosidase (AMG) while soybean protein was broken down to peptide and amino acid by enzyme pepsin. Tow addition modes: stepwise (one after the other) and simultaneous were investigated. The enzymes were then attached to flexible polymer which were then attached to magnetic nanoparticles to make non-magnetic and magnetic nanobiocatalysts.

Final findings of the research
Soybean samples were broken down differently and simultaneous AMG and AMY addition yielded more glucose in all samples, except in defatted flakes. Processing was optimum at 3h for all samples. Attaching flexible support to enzyme provided a joint enzyme action making the attached enzymes performed higher when compared to unattached enzymes. However, AMY-AMG magnetic unit performed lower than free enzyme. Similarly, the samples were broken down protein digesting enzyme called pepsin. Results show that pepsin free enzymes have higher amino acid contents in all samples except in dehulled sample than attached pepsin.

Benefits/Recommendations to North Dakota soybean farmers and industry
The non-magnetic nanobiocatalysts of AMG and AMY are viable for soybean processing to produce fermentable units to ethanol and organic ammonia. Future research work will focus on recoverability of the nanobiocatalysts and production of organic ammonia and ethanol using soybean hydrolysates as sole substrate during fermentation.

Benefit To Soybean Farmers

This research will make enzyme aided processing of soybeans industrially feasible thereby make soybean products attractive for application areas like functional foods, biomaterials production, and pharmaceuticals. This will eventually result into more reason to buy soybeans by the industries.

The United Soybean Research Retention policy will display final reports with the project once completed but working files will be purged after three years. And financial information after seven years. All pertinent information is in the final report or if you want more information, please contact the project lead at your state soybean organization or principal investigator listed on the project.